Gates is discussing a political reality that has I have noticed for many years, starting with Yugoslavia. Many countries ruled by dictatorial regimes have remained countries through the tyranny and despotism of its rulership. What we are witnessing now in the Middle East is something that began with the fall of European Communism in 1989 and the removal of Saddam Hussein from Iraq not too long ago. The wave of “democratic” desire is opening of the Pandora’s box of ethnic and national fervor for the various ethnicities and nationalities occupying these countries. If we look at Yugoslavia, we see the potential results. The former states, after years of fighting, have for the most part divided along more ethnic lines to form states run by each of the primary ethnicities of the area. Iraq and Afghanistan are facing the same problem. Both nations are having difficulty establishing a solid government because of the fears each group has to allow another nationality lead the way. This has been one of the major flaws that was started by the League of Nations and the now defunct European empires when realigning the Middle East.